A brief History of the origin of Modern Optics, Solar Technology, and Sahar@Green vision : two Genius (Abu Ali Hasan Ibn Al-Haitham 965-1040, and Hassan Kamel Al-Sabbah 1895-1935)
Abu Ali Hasan Ibn Al-Haitham is the Father of Modern Optics.
Mr Hassan Kamel Al-Sabbah meets in 1928 the Prince Chakib Erslan in USA. They study together the possibility to enable his inventions (Solar Power) into the deserts of Arabian Countries. Then the Prince Chakib Erslan contacts all Arabian Kings and Princes to enable this project.
80 years later, the project of Mr Hassan Kamel Al-Sabbah is foreshadowing all today's concepts like DESERTEC, Mediterranean Solar Plan, and MedGrid ...
Hassan Kamel Al-Sabbah, invented and tested the original solar cell in 1930. Al-Sabbah’s dream was to build sun-powered cells in the Arabian désert ; the main ingredients for solar power are sand (making solar cells) and strong sun (powering it). In 1935, he declared that he would return to the Middle East and transform the Arabian desert into a paradise. He was talking about using the desert to make and power the solar cells and thus producing enormous amounts of energy.
ABU ALI HASAN IBN AL-HAITHAM (965 - 1040 C. E.)
By Discovery Channel Magazine.com
Hundreds of years before Galileo, Newton and many other well- known western Scientists, an Iraqi theologian was working out exactly how light works.
The writings and diagrams of Ibn Al-Haytham, called also Alhazen, considered the father of modern optics and one of the forefather of solar technology, provided the first accurate description of the parts of the eye, as well as the first account of atmospheric refraction and reflection from curved surfaces. He also invented the first pinhole camera in order to observe the sun.
For more information, read the book « The Optical Scientist : by Bradley Steffens »
Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham was one of the most eminent physicists, whose contributions to optics and the scientific methods are outstanding. Known in the West as Alhazen, Ibn al-Haitham was born in 965 C.E. in Basrah, and was educated in Basrah and Baghdad. Thereafter, he went to Egypt, where he was asked to find ways of controlling the flood of the Nile. Being unsuccessful in this, he feigned madness until the death of Caliph al-Hakim. He also travelled to Spain and, during this period, he had ample time for his scientific pursuits, which included optics, mathematics, physics, medicine and development of scientific methods on each of which he has left several outstanding books.
He made a thorough examination of the passage of light through various media and discovered the laws of refraction. He also carried out the first experiments on the dispersion of light into its constituent colours. His book Kitab-al-Manadhir was translated into Latin in the Middle Ages, as also his book dealing with the colours of sunset. He dealt at length with the theory of various physical phenomena like shadows, eclipses, the rainbow, and speculated on the physical nature of light. He is the first to describe accurately the various parts of the eye and give a scientific explanation of the process of vision. He also attempted to explain binocular vision, and gave a correct explanation of the apparent increase in size of the sun and the moon when near the horizon. He is known for the earliest use of the camera obscura. He contradicted Ptolemy's and Euclid's theory of vision that objects are seen by rays of light emanating from the eyes; according to him the rays originate in the object of vision and not in the eye. Through these extensive researches on optics, he has been considered as the father of modern Optics.
The Latin translation of his main work, Kitab-al-Manadhir, exerted a great influence upon Western science e.g. on the work of Roger Bacon and Kepler. It brought about a great progress in experimental methods. His research in catoptrics centred on spherical and parabolic mirrors and spherical aberration. He made the important observation that the ratio between the angle of incidence and refraction does not remain constant and investigated the magnifying power of a lens. His catoptrics contain the important problem known as Alhazen's problem. It comprises drawing lines from two points in the plane of a circle meeting at a point on the circumference and making equal angles with the norrnal at that point. This leads to an equation of the fourth degree.
In his book Mizan al-Hikmah Ibn al-Haitham has discussed the density of the atmosphere and developed a relation between it and the height. He also studied atmospheric refraction. He discovered that the twilight only ceases or begins when the sun is 19° below the horizon and attempted to measure the height of the atmosphere on that basis. He has also discussed the theories of attraction between masses, and it seems that he was aware of the magnitude of acceleration due to gravity.
His contribution to mathematics and physics was extensive. In mathematics, he developed analytical geometry by establishing linkage between algebra and geometry. He studied the mechanics of motion of a body and was the first to maintain that a body moves perpetually unless an external force stops it or changes its direction of motion. This would seem equivalent to the first law of motion.
The list of his books runs to 200 or so, very few of which have survived. Even his monumental treatise on optics survived through its Latin translation. During the Middle Ages his books on cosmology were translated into Latin, Hebrew and other languages. He has also written on the subject of evolution a book that deserves serious attention even today.
In his writing, one can see a clear development of the scientific methods as developed and applied by the Muslims and comprising the systematic observation of physical phenomena and their linking together into a scientific theory. This was a major breakthrough in scientific methodology, as distinct from guess and gesture, and placed scientific pursuits on a sound foundation comprising systematic relationship between observation, hypothesis and verification.
Ibn al-Haitham's influence on physical sciences in general, and optics in particular, has been held in high esteem and, in fact, it ushered in a new era in optical research, both in theory and practice.
HASSAN KAMEL AL-SABBAH (1895 - 1935)
1895 – 1935 : Television Cathode Ray Tube, Solar Power, Arc Welding, Pressure and Temperature Instrumentation.
Hassan Kamel Al-Sabbah was born in Nabatieh, Lebanon. He was an electrical and electronics research engineer, mathematician and inventor par excellence. He studied at the American University of Beirut. He taught mathematics at Imperial College of Damascus, Syria, and at the American University of Beirut. He is seen as being the father of the solar cell. He died in an automobile accident at Lewis near Elizabeth Town, N.Y.
In 1921, he travelled to the United States and for a short time studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology before joining the University of Illinois in 1923. He entered the vacuum tube section of the Engineering Laboratory of the General Electric Company at Schenectady N.Y., in 1923, where he was engaged in mathematical and experimental research, principally on rectifiers and inverters, receiving over 70 United States and foreign patents covering his work. He was engaged in work on television and motors as well, and originated circuits for use with rectifiers. He prepared a series of articles on polyphase polycyclic static converters which were published in the Genenral Electric Review and his paper on the effect of circuits on arc backs in mercury congress at Paris in 1932. He was also on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers fellowship grade.
Mr. Al-Sabbah’s dream was to build sun-powered cells in the Arabian desert; the main ingredients for solar power are sand (making solar cells) and strong sun (powering it). In 1935, he declared that he would return to the Middle East and transform the Arabian desert into a paradise. (He was talking about using the desert to make and power the solar cells and thus producing enormous amounts of energy).
Mr. C.G. Marcy, the personnel director of General Electric Company, used these words to describe Hasan Kamel Al-Sabbah in a letter dated April 16, 1935:
"It is indeed infortunate that his genius mind should be brought to such an untimely end. His death is a great loss for the world of invention"
He is the nephew of prominent linguist and writer Sheikh Ahmad Reda.
Discoveries and inventions:
It is necessary to show the application and technical importance of how Hasan Kamel Alsabbah’s inventions and patents have contributed to applied technology in North America and the entire world. These patents of highly intricate systems, instruments and equipment can be classified in six main groups as follows:
- Space Industry (Solar power)
There are 27 patents (1928-35) of Hasan Kamel Alsabbah applied in space industries. Solar cells have been widely used for space vehicles and satellites as the main source of power. The original solar cell was invented and tested by Mr. Al-sabbah in 1930; solar power is by far the cleanest, safest and most efficient source of energy. The solar cell was further developed after World War II by Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1955. Careful review of the aircraft, spaceship, and satellite electric systems revealed that many electronic instruments and equipments (integrators, regulators, inverters, timers, transmitters, and sensors) are major components of the assembly of these crafts and are developed from Mr. Alsabbah’s original inventions of rectifiers and converters.
- Automotive Industry (The Solar Electric Car)
There are five basic patents (1929-35) on electric distribution, transforming and translating circuits. In 1930, Alsabbah performed experiments on his own car to electrify it. He worked seriously to make the idea of the electric car a useful and practical possibility. His early experiments gave GE the unique position as a pioneer in developing the solar cell and sodium-sulphur battery as well. With increasing shortage of liquid fuel, battery-powered electric cars will become attractive for personal transport in and around towns.
- Television and Cathode Ray Tube Application
There are three patents on television-transmission of pictures and views (1928-30) and two patents on cathode ray tube (1935). GE research engineers at Schenectady N.Y. developed the liquid crystal display (LCD) instrument system based on the original patents of Hasan Kamel Al-Sabbah. It is the world’s largest high resolution LCD panel for aircraft. It presents information in colour, and with twice the sharpness of a home TV screen. The display owes its high resolution to the large number of pixels (dots) that are activated toform an image on its screen, LCD imgaes are normally black and green filters. Further development and modifications of the Alsabbah cathode ray tube created new types of CRT used in electronic systems.The television would not have been discovered without this.
- Power Generating Station
It is important to note that six patents (1929-35) dealt with Recifying and Rectifier Compounding systems. Another 24 patents (1930-30) dealt with electric power conversion and excitation systems. Hasan Kamel Alsabbah established in the early Thirties the basic techniques for many applicable procedures for the protection of the excitation transformers over current and rotor over voltage/load. He left after his death a great technical legacy of useful methods, procedures and formulas. All his procedures are presently used by GE’s commissioning and operation department and totally or partially adopted and further developed by the otherelectrical power equipment manufacturers. GE engineers recently developed several electornic equipments based on the original patents of Hasan Kamel Alsabbah. Among the new devices are the metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), the conductivity modulated field-effecttransistor (COMFET), the high-power bipolar junction transistor (HPBJT), the power MOS-controlled thyristor (PMOSCT) and the HVDC thyristor valves. When he was young, he said to his mother if the streams of the radio work, what if we put a screen over that and the streams will be the same but we will see a picture!! The Television would'nt have been made without him.
- Pressure and Temperature Electric Instrumentation
There are three basic patents on pressure control (1927-30) and one patent on temperature control (1935). It is important to note that many pressure and temperature devices developed to be used in the control of steam, reheat stages (such as indicators, transmitters, switches, sensors,detectors and controllers) are based on the original patents of Mr. Alsabbah. Several major pressure and temperature electronic gauge manufacturers signed mutual agreements with GE to produce and/or further develop the Alsabbah inventions.
- Heavy Industry: Development of New Arc Welding Methods
There are basic patents on vapour electric arc (1928-30), in addition to the six patents on rectifying and rectifiers (1928-35). These inventions are the cornerstone of the arc-welding machines. The Alsabbah rectifying system was further developed by GE. The GE AC/DC transformer/rectifier was introduced to the market in 1930. This transformer/rectifier was the essential part of the shield metal arc welding (SMAW) machine in 1936 and Mr. Hopkins developed the electro slag welding (EW) machine in 1937. The heavy industry (ships, submarines, tanks and turbo-generators) could not progress without the development of the new arc welding machinery. In the early years of theSecond World War, many welding machine manufacturers further developed the welding machine to meet the military industry requirements by using the rectifying system of Mr.Alsabbah.